Sunday, May 31, 2009

Parshat Bahalotcha 5769

Parshat Bahalotcha 5769
Rabbi Ari Kahn
A Little Pesach

The Second Pesach
An entire year has passed. It had certainly been an eventful year. The year began with the word of God – and the gift of time, the Israelites were told about the Pesach – the Passover offering, and the grand exodus which would follow. Indeed soon the people were on their way, through the sea into the desert, arriving at a mountain. They had glorious highs – like receiving the Torah, and humiliating lows, like serving a molten calf. They built the Mishkan, but the consecration was marred by the deaths of Nadav and Avihu.

Now they stood one year after the first Pesach, and are told to do it again, this time not in anticipation of leaving Egypt, but now a national observance would be celebrated; commemorating the Exodus.

במדבר פרק ט
(א) וַיְדַבֵּר ה’ אֶל משֶׁה בְמִדְבַּר סִינַי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן לֵאמֹר: (ב) וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַפָּסַח בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ: (ג) בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמֹעֲדוֹ כְּכָל חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל מִשְׁפָּטָיו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ: (ד) וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂת הַפָּסַח: (ה) וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת הַפֶּסַח בָּרִאשׁוֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם בְּמִדְבַּר סִינָי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה’ אֶת משֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they came out of the land of Egypt, saying, 2. Let the people of Israel also keep the Passover at its appointed season. 3. In the fourteenth day of this month, at evening you shall keep it in its appointed season; according to all its rites, and according to all its ceremonies, shall you keep it. 4. And Moses spoke to the people of Israel, that they should keep the Passover. 5. And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at evening in the wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so did the people of Israel. Bamidbar 9:1-5

There were however a group of people who felt disenfranchised, those who were ritually impure and could not participate felt as if they were excluded from the Jewish people.

במדבר פרק ט
(ו) וַיְהִי אֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לַעֲשֹׂת הַפֶּסַח בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיִּקְרְבוּ לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי אַהֲרֹן בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא: (ז) וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָהֵמָּה אֵלָיו אֲנַחְנוּ טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם לָמָּה נִגָּרַע לְבִלְתִּי הַקְרִב אֶת קָרְבַּן ה’ בְּמֹעֲדוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
6. And there were certain men, who were defiled by the dead body of a man, so that they could not keep the Passover on that day; and they came before Moses and before Aaron on that day; 7. And those men said to him, We are defiled by the dead body of a man; Why are we kept back, so that we may not offer an offering to the Lord in his appointed season among the people of Israel? Bamidbar 9:6,7

Their feelings are understandable, this defining practice, which in a sense created the nation, separated between life and death. It separated between the Israelites who were headed for freedom, and the Egyptians, whose every home – which did not have the paschal lamb, and blood on the doorposts suffered death. The blood on the doorposts was not to be repeated, but the paschal offering would be repeated, and those who could not participate felt as if they were separated from the people.

Moreover, the defilement by a dead body is part of vicissitudes of life. A thriving bustling community will have births and sadly will also have deaths.[1] Those who deal with the dead are performing an important mitzva, an unparalleled mitzvah of chesed.[2] The members of the group who prepare the body for burial, and take care of the burial are called to this very day the chevra kadisha the holy society. Why should the performance of a mitzva, certainly an important mitzva cause the practitioners to suffer religiously, by being excluded from the paschal service?[3]

A Second, Second Pesach
Moshe feels that the question is a valid one and asks God what should be done:

במדבר פרק ט
(ח) וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה עִמְדוּ וְאֶשְׁמְעָה מַה יְצַוֶּה ה’ לָכֶם: פ
8. And Moses said to them, Wait, and I will hear what the Lord will command concerning you. Bamidbar 9:8

The answer received is extraordinary; an answer which flies in the face of the laws of offerings. Under normal circumstances the time an offering can be brought is precise, if the day in missed the opportunity is forfeited.[4]
Nonetheless, they are told that there would be a second opportunity to bring this offering:

במדבר פרק ט
(ט) וַיְדַבֵּר ה’ אֶל מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר: (י) דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה טָמֵא לָנֶפֶשׁ אוֹ בְדֶרֶךְ רְחֹקָה לָכֶם אוֹ לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַ ה’: (יא) בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ: (יב) לֹא יַשְׁאִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר וְעֶצֶם לֹא יִשְׁבְּרוּ בוֹ כְּכָל חֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ: (יג) וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן ה’ לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא:

9. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 10. Speak to the people of Israel, saying, If any man of you or of your posterity shall be unclean because of a dead body, or is in a journey far away, he shall still keep the Passover to the Lord. 11. The fourteenth day of the second month at evening they shall keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. 12. They shall leave none of it to the morning, nor break any bone of it; according to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it. 13. But the man who is clean, and is not in a journey, and refrains from keeping the Passover, that same soul shall be cut off from among his people; because he brought not the offering of the Lord in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin. Bamidbar 9:9-13

The normal rules of offering are ignored; the people would receive a second chance. Why in this case were the rules changed? What is it about this situation that allowed a second chance? Perhaps understanding why they were impure would help us unravel this mystery. We saw earlier that they were defiled due to an anonymous death in the camp. This question is debated in the Talmud, and three explanations for the defilement are offered. The Talmud was discussing the principle of osek bmitzva patur mmitzva, if someone is involved with the performance of one mizvah they are then absolved from the performance of second mitzva:

תלמוד בבלי מסכת סוכה דף כה עמוד א
והעוסק במצוה פטור מן המצוה מהכא נפקא? מהתם נפקא, דתניא: +במדבר ט+ ויהי אנשים אשר היו טמאים לנפש אדם וכו' אותם אנשים מי היו? נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו, דברי רבי יוסי הגלילי, דף כה: רבי עקיבא אומר: מישאל ואלצפן היו שהיו עוסקין בנדב ואביהוא. רבי יצחק אומר: אם נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו - כבר היו יכולין ליטהר, אם מישאל ואלצפן היו - יכולין היו ליטהר. אלא עוסקין במת מצוה היו, שחל שביעי שלהן להיות בערב פסח.
But is the law that he who is engaged on one religious duty is free from any other deduced from here? Is it not deduced from elsewhere, As it has been taught: And there were certain men who were unclean by the dead body of a man, etc. Who were these men? They were those who bore the coffin of Joseph, so R. Jose the Galilean. R. Akiba said, They were Mishael and Elzaphan who were occupied with [the remains of] Nadab and Abihu. R. Isaac said, If they were those who bore the coffin of Joseph, they had time to cleanse themselves [before Passover,] and if they were Mishael and Elzaphan they could [also] have cleansed themselves [before the Passover]. But it was those who were occupied with a meth mizwah, the seventh day [of whose purification] coincided with the eve of Passover, as it is said, They could not keep the Passover on that day, on ‘that’ day they could not keep the Passover, but on the morrow they could? Talmud Bavli Sukka 25a,b

While the Talmud gravitates to the opinion that those who died were anonymous people, the opinion of Rabbi Yose; that it was those who were entrusted with carrying the remains of Yosef, which has captured the imagination of later authorities. The Midrash clearly states that the creation of Pesach Sheni was not the performance of a pedestrian deed; it was the remains of Yosef which generated this extraordinary law.

שמות רבה (וילנא) פרשה כ ד"ה יט וחמושים עלו
וחמושים עלו בני ישראל שעלו מזוינין, ויקח משה את עצמות יוסף עהכ"א (משלי י) חכם לבב יקח מצות שכל ישראל היו עסוקים בכסף וזהב ומשה היה עסוק בעצמות יוסף שנאמר ויקח משה את עצמות וגו',... והיו עצמותיו של יוסף מחזרין עמהם במדבר מ' שנה, א"ל הקב"ה אתה אמרת לאחיך (שם /בראשית נ'/) אנכי אכלכל אתכם חייך אתה נפטר ויהיו עצמותיך מחזרין עמהם במדבר מ' שנה שנאמר (במדבר ט) ויהי אנשים אשר היו טמאים לנפש אדם ואין אדם אלא יוסף שנאמר (תהלים עח) אהל שכן באדם, וכתיב (שם /תהלים ע"ח/) וימאס באהל יוסף, בזכות עצמותיך הם עושים פסח קטן,
AND THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL WENT UP ARMED (XIII, 18)--They went up armed against all attacks. AND MOSES TOOK THE BONES OF JOSEPH (ib. 19). Concerning him does it say: The wise in heart will take good deeds (Prov. X, 8), for at the time when the whole of Israel were busily occupied in collecting gold and silver, Moses was occupied with collecting the bones of Joseph, as it says: AND MOSES TOOK THE BONES OF JOSEPH. … During the entire forty years’ wanderings in the wilderness, the bones of Joseph traveled with them. God had said to him [Joseph]: ‘Because thou hast said: "I will feed you" to thy brothers, I assure thee that when thou art dead, thy bones will journey with them for forty years in the wilderness,’ as it says: But there were certain men, who were unclean by the dead body of a man (Num. IX, 6). The word ’man’ refers to Joseph, for it says: The tent which He had made to dwell among men (Ps. LXXVIII, 60), and then: Moreover He abhorred the tent of Joseph (ib. 67) For the sake of thy bones shall they celebrate the lesser Passover. Midrash Rabba Sh’mot 20:19

The Midrash connects the Pesach Sheni with Yosef, as reward for a specific deed of Yosef, his remains travelled with the community, because he took care of and fed his brothers. To fully appreciate this gesture we need to appreciate the context. Yaakov has died and the brothers and Yosef have returned to Egypt. The brothers are apparently frightened; therefore they take a preemptive action, and offer to be slaves to Yosef. One who is not scared would not offer themselves to a life of servitude, the sad case was that the brothers were scared of something worse than servitude; they were scared of death.

בראשית פרק נ
(יד) וַיָּשָׁב יוֹסֵף מִצְרַיְמָה הוּא וְאֶחָיו וְכָל הָעֹלִים אִתּוֹ לִקְבֹּר אֶת אָבִיו אַחֲרֵי קָבְרוֹ אֶת אָבִיו:(טו) וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵי יוֹסֵף כִּי מֵת אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ יוֹסֵף וְהָשֵׁב יָשִׁיב לָנוּ אֵת כָּל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר גָּמַלְנוּ אֹתוֹ: (טז) וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל יוֹסֵף לֵאמֹר אָבִיךָ צִוָּה לִפְנֵי מוֹתוֹ לֵאמֹר:(יז) כֹּה תֹאמְרוּ לְיוֹסֵף אָנָּא שָׂא נָא פֶּשַׁע אַחֶיךָ וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי רָעָה גְמָלוּךָ וְעַתָּה שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וַיֵּבְךְּ יוֹסֵף בְּדַבְּרָם אֵלָיו:(יח) וַיֵּלְכוּ גַּם אֶחָיו וַיִּפְּלוּ לְפָנָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ הִנֶּנּוּ לְךָ לַעֲבָדִים: (יט) וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוֹסֵף אַל תִּירָאוּ כִּי הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אָנִי: (כ) וְאַתֶּם חֲשַׁבְתֶּם עָלַי רָעָה אֱלֹהִים חֲשָׁבָהּ לְטֹבָה לְמַעַן עֲשֹׂה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְהַחֲיֹת עַם רָב:(כא) וְעַתָּה אַל תִּירָאוּ אָנֹכִי אֲכַלְכֵּל אֶתְכֶם וְאֶת טַפְּכֶם וַיְנַחֵם אוֹתָם וַיְדַבֵּר עַל לִבָּם:
14. And Joseph returned to Egypt, he, and his brothers, and all who went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father. 15. And when Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, Joseph will perhaps hate us, and will certainly pay us back for all the evil which we did to him. 16. And they sent a messenger to Joseph, saying, Your father did command before he died, saying, 17. So shall you say to Joseph, Forgive, I beg you now, the trespass of your brothers, and their sin; for they did to you evil; and now, we beg you, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of your father. And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18. And his brothers also went and fell down before his face; and they said, Behold, we are your servants. 19. And Joseph said to them, Fear not; for am I in the place of God? 20. But as for you, you thought evil against me; but God meant it to good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive. 21. Now therefore do not fear; I will nourish you, and your little ones. And he comforted them, and spoke kindly to them. Bereishit 50:14-21

A Second Chance
Yosef’s response to their offer, was not just non belligerence or non-violence, he offered to care for them, to feed them. He offered to treat them as brothers, as family. The reason they feared, was there was a time long ago, before Yosef became a viceroy in Egypt, that they wished to thrust him out of the family, an act which would have cut him out of the Jewish people. Now with his father dead and buried Yosef could have his sweet revenge. Instead of intimidation and violence Yosef offers a gesture of love. Ironically had he accepted their offer, he would have been again separated from his family. But Yosef offers to feed them; he wants to be with them. His reward was that he remained with his family, with his people, and when they leave he will leave with them.[5]

This may allow us to understand why Yosef is connected with Pesach Sheni. When those who could not bring the offering complained, they described their plight not just that they would not be able to fulfill the command – but they would be unable to fulfill the command among the rest of the people:

במדבר פרק ט
(ז) וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָהֵמָּה אֵלָיו אֲנַחְנוּ טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם לָמָּה נִגָּרַע לְבִלְתִּי הַקְרִב אֶת קָרְבַּן ה’ בְּמֹעֲדוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Why are we kept back, so that we may not offer an offering to the Lord in his appointed season among the people of Israel? Bamidbar 9:7

Non performance of the Pesach offering is related to separation from the people of Israel:

במדבר פרק ט
(יג) וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן ה’ לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא:
13. But the man who is clean, and is not in a journey, and refrains from keeping the Passover, that same soul shall be cut off from among his people; because he brought not the offering of the Lord in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin. Bamidbar 9:13

The punishment is described as karet, which means to be spiritually separated from the Jewish people. This punishment is usually reserved for severe crimes, when someone has done something severely wrong. In this instance it is not that something was done, rather it was for being passive and not performing a task required task – eating from the paschal lamb. The only other punishment of karet meted for nonperformance of a positive commandment is non-performance of circumcision. These two commandments have a commonality, they both define peoplehood, and non-performance is a bill of divorce from the Jewish people. Karet as punishment for these omissions may be more of a result of not doing an act which defines the Jewish people, rather than as a punishment per se.

Yosef was thrust out of his people, and he had an opportunity to thrust out his people. Instead he chose the moral high road. He chose love, he chose peace he chose camaraderie. He chose family.

Yosef’s heroic gesture resulted in a second chance; another attempt for the nation to be one. As a result of this gesture Yosef’s remains would travel with them on their journey. He would leave and finally go back home to Israel with his family. Nonetheless his remains, like all Jewish corpses generated impurity, however it was deemed inconceivable, that those who tended to Yosef, would feel separated from the community, with beautiful poetic justice God gave them a second chance. The normal rules of sacrifices could be suspended. Yosef’ benevolence is mirrored by God’s benevolence. A new holiday representing second chances would be established.[6] A fitting holiday for Yosef.[7]

The enslavement in Egypt resulted from the sale of Yosef. The callus meal eaten as Yosef languished in the pit required a tikun. They broke bread as Yosef screamed. They were impervious to his screams, for they had deemed him no longer part of the Jewish people. It was a meal which brought the brothers together, together in a dastardly deed, with one brother missing. When the Jews leave Egypt they are commanded to have a meal and eat the Paschal lamb, but now they are told they must bring the family together when they eat.

שמות פרק יב
(ג) דַּבְּרוּ אֶל כָּל עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת:(ד) וְאִם יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל הַשֶּׂה:
3. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house; 4. And if the household is too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating shall you make your count for the lamb. Sh’mot 12:3,4

Bring the family together, and even invite the neighbors if you can. The offering must be eaten with Matzah, perhaps bread which symbolized haughtiness – and that horrific meal eaten within earshot of the pit was deemed unacceptable. In fact all bread and bread products must be exorcized from the home. However Pesach Sheni has no such requirement, now bread and matzah can reside together in one home – truly an extraordinary holiday[8]. A holiday of unity[9], a holiday which shows the love that God has for His people, a holiday of second chances.[10]

[1] See Comments of Ibn Ezra
אבן עזרא על במדבר פרק ט פסוק ו
ויהי אנשים - לא יתכן שיהיה מחנה ישראל גדול ושלא ימותו שם מתים בכל יום:
[2] See Rashi Bereishit 47:29
רש"י בראשית פרק מז
חסד ואמת - חסד שעושין עם המתים הוא חסד של אמת, שאינו מצפה לתשלום גמול:
[3] In the words of the Seforno Bamidbar 9:7 – why should our mitzva cause a sin – by non-compliance to the pesach mitzva.
ספורנו עה"ת ספר במדבר פרק ט פסוק ז
אנחנו טמאים לנפש אדם, למה נגרע. מאחר שהיתה טומאתנו לדבר מצוה למה תהיה גוררת עבירה. במועדו. שזו מצוה עוברת:

[4] The principle is known as עבר זמנו בטל קרבנו avar zmano batel korbano. See Tosfot Brachot 26a SV Ibaya Lihu. It is there explained that the daily prayers, which were instituted by the forefathers, and commemorate a sacrifice from the Mishkan, can be said even if the proper time passed, because of the aspect of the prayers which were instituted by the forefathers. However musaf (the additional prayer said on holidays) can not be made up, for this is a commemoration of the additional offering brought on holidays.
תוספות מסכת ברכות דף כו עמוד א
איבעיא להו טעה ולא התפלל תפלת מנחה כו' - לא בעי אם טעה ולא התפלל תפלת מוסף דהא ודאי אינו מתפלל בערבית דהיאך יקרא את הקרבנות וכבר עבר זמן מוסף וגם לא תיקנו שבע ברכות של מוסף אלא משום ונשלמה פרים שפתינו ובזה ודאי עבר זמנו בטל קרבנו אבל שאר תפלות דרחמי נינהו ולואי שיתפלל אדם כל היום כולו ואין כאן עבר זמנו בתפלה אחרת.
[5] The Midrash Sh’mot Rabbah 20:19, stresses that Yosef was taken from Shechem, in order for the sale of Yosef to have full and final closure, he will need to be returned to Shechem
שמות רבה (וילנא) פרשה כ ד"ה יט וחמושים עלו
כך משכם גנבו אחיו של יוסף אותו ומכרו אותו וכשבא ליפטר מן העולם השביע אותם אמר להם בבקשה מכם אחי משכם גנבתם אותי חי החזירו את עצמותי לשכם לכך נאמר (יהושע כד) ואת עצמות יוסף אשר העלו בני ישראל ממצרים קברו בשכם.
Similarly, it was from Shechem that the brothers of Joseph had stolen him and had sold him: and when he was about to die, he adjured them: ' My brothers! ye have stolen me from Shechem while I was alive, I pray you, return my bones to Shechem.’ For this reason does it say: And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem (Josh. XXIV, 32)
[6] According to the Zohar (Bamidbar 152b) the spiritual feeling of Pesach Sheni can be felt for seven days:
זוהר - רעיא מהימנא כרך ג (במדבר) פרשת בהעלותך דף קנב עמוד ב
פקודא (ל) למעבד פסח שני על אינון דלא יכילו או דאסתאבו במסאבו אחרא, אי רזא דפסח רזא דמהימנותא דישראל עאלין בה שלטא בניסן וכדין איהו זמנא לחדוה איך יכלין אלין דלא יכילו או דאסתאבו למעבד בירחא תניינא דהא אעבר זמנא, אלא כיון דכ"י מתעטרא בעטרהא בניסן לא אתעדיאת כתרהא ועטרהא מנה תלתין יומין וכל אינון ל' יומין מן יומא דנפקו ישראל מפסח יתבא מטרוניתא בעטרהא וכל חילהא בחדוה, מאן דבעי למחמי למטרוניתא יכיל למחמי, כרוזא כריז כל מאן דלא יכיל למחמי מטרוניתא ייתי ויחמי עד לא ינעלון תרעיה, אימתי כרוזא כריז בארבעה עשר לירחא תניינא דהא מתמן עד שבעה יומין תרעין פתיחן, מכאן ולהלאה ינעלון תרעי, ועל דא פסח שני ע"כ: (פקודא דא לספור ספירת העומר צז א):
There is a commandment to bring a Pesach sheni for those who were unable to fulfill the mitzvah in the proper time, or were impure with some other impurity. If the secret of Pesach is the secret of the faith which Israel entered, this rules (only) in the month of Nisan, then is the time for joy, how can someone who was impure or missed the (proper) time bring the offering in the second month – the (correct) time has passed?
The answer is that the community of Israel is endowed with the crown in the month of Nisan, the crown is not removed for thirty days. And for these thirty days the matron sits with her crown and all the hosts rejoice. And whoever wishes to see the matron can see. The crier then goes and announces whomever can not see the matron can come and look before the gates are closed. When does the crier go out? On the fourteenth of the second month and from that day the gates are opened for seven more days, from that day onward the gates are closed, this is the Pesach Sheni

[7] See Shem Mishmuel Bahalotcha 5672
ספר שם משמואל פרשת בהעלותך - שנת תרע"ב
ויהי אנשים וגו' אותם אנשים מי היו נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו, והנה יוסף השביע את ישראל שיעלו את עצמותיו עמהם, והם שנשאו את ארונו היו במקום כל ישראל, ע"כ חשבו שיהי' הדין אצלם כמו בכל ישראל שטומאה דחוי' בציבור. ואולי הטעם שלא הסכים עמהם הש"י הוא, מפני שעדיין יש להם תקנה בפסח שני, וכמו חגיגה שאינה דוחה שבת, אבל ציבור ממש שדוחין הוא משום דאין להם תקנה בשני, דאי אמרת שאין דוחין ולא עבדי ציבור בראשון שוב אינם עושין את השני כלל וכמו שהי' הציבור זבין בראשון, ודו"ק:
ובזה יש לפרש דברי המדרש (שמו"ר פ' כ') שבזכות יוסף עושין פסח קטן, דהנה אמרו ז"ל (דב"ר פ"ב סי' ה') יוסף שהודה בארצו נקבר בארצו, ובזכותו היו כל ישראל משועבדים להעלותו, והי' הדין נותן שידחה טומאה ויעשו בראשון כנ"ל, אלא שנעשתה להם תקנה שיעשו בשני, אבל בשאר טמאים אי לא היתה נתחדשה ההלכה לעשות פסח שני ע"י נושאי ארונו של יוסף היו נדחין לגמרי, אבל כשנתחדשה הלכה ע"י נושאי ארונו של יוסף שוב גם שאר הטמאים עושין פסח שני, א"כ כל ענין פסח שני הוא רק בזכות יוסף, ודו"ק

[8] See Rashi Bamidbar 9:10
רש"י במדבר פרק ט פסוק י
פסח שני מצה וחמץ עמו בבית ואין שם יום טוב, ואין איסור חמץ אלא עמו באכילתו:

[9] Yosef represents unity see Sfat Emet Miketz 5652
שפת אמת ספר בראשית - פרשת מקץ - שנת [תרנ"ב]
ובאמת יוסף הצדיק הוא בחי' השבת והשבת הוא כולל כל ימי השבוע. ויוסף הוא הכולל כל נפשות בני ישראל ולכן קרבנו הוא קרבן ציבור וקרב בשבת:

[10] See Shem Mishmuel Vayikra –Chodesh 5674
ספר שם משמואל פרשת ויקרא - וחודש שנת תרע"ד
והנה יוסף באשר מיאן להתדבק לדבר שאינו ראוי לו זכה שנדבקו בו כל הכחות הקדושים, וע"כ בכחו לחבר ולאחד את הכל, ומדתו צדיק יסוד עולם כי כל בשמים ובארץ ובתרגום דאחיד בשמיא ובארעא, ע"כ אמרו אין אדם אלא יוסף, ומייתי לה מאוהל שיכן באדם התחברות עליונים ותחתונים. ומעתה יש לומר דכל שם אדם לדורות הוא כשהוא שומר הברית, הוא ראוי לחבר מה שראוי לחבר, וע"כ אתם קרוים אדם ולא אומה"ע כי כתיב (ישעי' ס') ועמך כולם צדיקים, ולהיפוך (ירמי' ט') כי כל הגוים ערלים היפוך מדת צדיק, דצדיק לא נקרא אלא דנטר האי ברית:
והנה קרבן הוא כשמו לקרב את הכחות שראויים לקרב, וע"כ בראשית דיני קרבנות פריש האי שמא להורות מי הוא הראוי להקריב קרבן, ואף שגם הגויים מתנדבין קרבנות ונתרבו מאיש איש, מ"מ אין קרבנם ענין אחד עם קרבן ישראל:
ולפי האמור יש ליתן טעם דערל אסור בפסח, ועיקר ענין פסח ומילה שניתן להם אז, כי קרבן פסח לקרב כל הכחות ואפי' כל האכילות לגבוה, ומצד זה עצמו היתה הגאולה שגם הם נתקרבו ונדבקו בהשכינה וכשעלתה ממצרים נתעלו עמה. אך א"א הי' לקרב ולאחד את כל הכחות כי אם בכח שמירת הברית ברישא כנ"ל, וע"כ צריכין למילה ברישא:
ולפי האמור תובן טענת נושאי ארונו של יוסף (במדבר ט') אנחנו טמאים לנפש אדם למה נגרע לבלתי הקריב את קרבן ה' וגו', דמאחר שהם נושאי ארונו של יוסף שהוא שורש ויסוד כל הקרבנות אינו בדין שידחו הם מקרבן ה'. וזה שהשיבם משה דין פסח שני, אדרבה בזכות יוסף נתגלגל על ידיהם עוד קרבן והוא פסח שני לאחד ולקרב אפי' הרחוקים מפסח ראשון, וזה שבמדרש (שמ"ר סו"פ כ') שבזכות יוסף הם עושין פסח קטן

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